Passenger Airline Employment

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November 2012 Passenger Airline Employment Down 2.0 Percent from November 2011

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Employment, 1990-2012

U.S. scheduled passenger airlines employed 381,639 workers in November 2012, 2.0 percent fewer than in November 2011, the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) reported today. Scheduled passenger airline categories include network, low-cost, regional and other airlines. This was the third consecutive month that full-time equivalent (FTE) employment for U.S. scheduled passenger carriers has been lower than the same month of the previous year. This follows 22 months of year-to-year increases that began in November 2010 (Table 2).

BTS, a part of the Research and Innovative Technology Administration, reported that the November 2012 FTE total for scheduled passenger carriers was 7,722 fewer than in November 2011 and is the lowest monthly total since January 2011 (Table 3).   can be found on the BTS web site.

There were 0.7 percent fewer FTEs in November 2012 than in October 2012.  Month-to-month changes can be affected by seasonal factors, such as the number of flights and passengers.

The five network airlines that collectively employ two-thirds of the scheduled passenger airline FTEs reported 2.4 percent fewer FTEs in November 2012, the fourth consecutive decline for the group. Delta Air Lines, eliminating positions following its merger with Northwest Airlines, reduced FTEs by 3.6 percent from November 2011. American Airlines, which filed for bankruptcy in November 2011, reduced FTEs by 7.4 percent. United Airlines reported a post-merger total of 82,381 FTEs in November 2012, 1,384 or 1.7 percent more FTEs than the 80,997 United and Continental Airlines reported separately in November 2011 (Table 9). Network airlines operate a significant portion of flights using at least one hub where connections are made for flights to down-line destinations or spoke cities.

Among the six low-cost carriers, Allegiant Airlines, Virgin America Airlines, Spirit Airlines and JetBlue Airways reported an increase in FTEs.  Frontier Airlines was the only low-cost carrier reporting fewer FTEs. Southwest Airlines reported 45,953 FTEs in November 2012 in a joint report following its merger with AirTran Airways. The combined total was 348 or 0.8 percent more than the 45,605 FTEs the two airlines reported separately in November 2011 (Table 12). Low-cost airlines operate under a low-cost business model, with infrastructure and aircraft operating costs below the overall industry average.

Among the 16 regional carriers, seven carriers reported reduced employment levels in November compared to last year: ExpressJet Airlines, Mesa Airlines, Horizon Airlines, Pinnacle Airlines, SkyWest Airlines, Air Wisconsin and Executive Airlines. The total number of FTEs reported by Pinnacle – which recently merged with Mesaba Airlines – was 15.7 percent fewer than the total number of FTEs reported individually by the two airlines prior to the merger (Table 15). Colgan Airlines, which ceased flight operations after September 2012, reported one FTE in November. Regional carriers typically provide service from small cities, using primarily regional jets to support the network carriers’ hub and spoke systems.

Carrier Groups: The five network airlines employed 67.3 percent of the total number of FTEs employed by all scheduled passenger airlines in November, the six low-cost carriers employed 18.2 percent and the 16 regional carriers employed 13.1 percent (Table 4). The three airlines with the most FTEs in November – United, Delta and American – employed 56.9 percent of the total passenger airline FTEs (Table 6).

Top employers by group: The newly-merged United employed the most FTEs (82,381) in November among the network airlines, Southwest employed the most FTEs (45,953) among low-cost airlines, and American Eagle Airlines employed the most FTEs (10,616) among regional airlines. Four of the top five employers in the industry are network airlines (Table 6).

Network Airlines

Recent Trend: The network airlines employed 6,293 fewer FTEs in November 2012 than in November 2011. Only two of the five network carriers increased FTEs from November 2011 to November 2012 (Tables 8, 9).

Five-Year Trend: The network airlines employed 8,391 fewer FTEs in November 2012 than in November 2008, a 3.2 percent decrease. American reported the biggest percentage decline in FTE employment from 2008 to 2012, 12.4 percent, followed by Alaska Airlines, down 4.4 percent. November 2008 and November 2012 numbers for United and Delta are not directly comparable because of the intervening mergers. United reported 1.3 percent more FTEs in November 2012 than United and Continental reported separately in November 2008; Delta reported 0.6 percent more FTEs in November 2012 than Delta and Northwest reported separately in November 2008 (Tables 8, 9).

Low-Cost Airlines

Recent Trend: The six low-cost airlines’ FTEs were up 1.4 percent in November 2012 from November 2011. All low-cost airlines except Frontier reported year-to-year increases (Table 12).

Five-Year Trend: The six low-cost carriers reporting employment data in both 2008 and 2012 employed 10.8 percent more FTEs in November 2012 than in November 2008.  Virgin America reported the largest percentage increase (90.9 percent), while Frontier reported a decline. November 2012 numbers for Southwest are not directly comparable to 2008 because of the intervening merger. Southwest reported 6.9 percent more FTEs in November 2012 than Southwest and AirTran reported separately in November 2008 (Table 12).

Regional Airlines

Recent Trend: Regional airlines reported a 5.4 percent decrease in FTE employment in November 2012 compared to November 2011. GoJet Airlines and Shuttle America report the largest percentage increases in FTEs from November 2011 to November 2012 among airlines not involved in mergers. Executive and Pinnacle reported the largest percentage decreases. Atlantic Southeast Airlines and ExpressJet Airlines reported separately in November 2011, as did Pinnacle and Mesaba, while their reports were combined in November 2012 as a result of mergers (Table 15).

Five-Year Trend: The 13 regional carriers reporting employment data in both November 2008 and November 2012 employed 12.8 percent fewer FTEs in 2012 than in 2008. For airlines not involved in mergers, Mesa reported the largest percentage decline followed by Executive. The Pinnacle/Mesaba combination reported 33.9 percent fewer FTE’s in November 2012 than the two airlines reported separately in November 2008.  GoJet reported the biggest four-year percentage gain. Effective with January 2011 reporting, Republic Airline’s employment numbers include FTEs from Midwest Airlines. Midwest employment data were formerly included in the "Other Airlines" category (Table 15).

Airlines that operate at least one aircraft with the capacity to carry combined passengers, cargo and fuel of 18,000 pounds – the payload factor – must report monthly employment statistics.

The “Other Carrier” category generally reflects those airlines that operate within specific niche markets such as Hawaiian Airlines serving the Hawaiian Islands. 

Data are compiled from monthly reports filed with BTS by commercial air carriers as of Jan. 10. Additional and previous press releases can be found on the BTS website. BTS has scheduled release of December passenger airline employment data for Feb. 27.

Table 1: Change from Previous Year in Scheduled Passenger Airline Full-time Equivalent Employees* by Airline Group

Most recent 13 months - percent change compared to same month the previous year

Month Network Airlines Low-Cost Airlines Regional Airlines All Passenger Airlines**
Nov 2010-Nov 2011 2.6 5.9 0.6 2.6
Dec 2010-Dec 2011 2.3 6.5 1.5 2.7
Jan 2011-Jan 2012 1.5 5.7 0.1 2.1
Feb 2011-Feb 2012 1.2 6.4 0.9 2.1
Mar 2011-Mar 2012 1.2 7.1 0.2 2.1
Apr 2011-Apr 2012 1.3 5.7 -1.5 1.8
May 2011-May 2012 1.3 5.3 -2.2 1.6
Jun 2011-Jun 2012 1.4 4.0 -2.5 1.4
Jul 2011-Jul 2012 0.8 3.5 -3.3 0.8
Aug 2011-Aug 2012 -0.2 2.5 -2.3 0.1
Sep 2011-Sep 2012 -0.8 2.5 -4.3 -0.6
Oct 2011-Oct 2012 -1.4 1.9 -6.0 -1.3
Nov 2011-Nov 2012 -2.4 1.4 -5.4 -2.0

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

** Includes network, low-cost, regional and other carriers. Other Carriers generally operate within specific niche markets. They are: Hawaiian Airlines and Sun Country Airlines.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

Note: See Table 2 for all passenger airlines, Table 7 for Network, Table 10 for Low-Cost and Table 13 for Regional.

 

Table 2: Change from Previous Year in Scheduled Passenger Airline* Full-time Equivalent Employees**

Percent change compared to same month the previous year

Month 2009 2010 2011 2012
January -6.7 -2.9 0.4 2.1
February -6.6 -3.5 1.0 2.1
March -5.6 -3.8 1.5 2.1
April -5.5 -4.1 2.0 1.8
May -6.8 -2.7 2.1 1.6
June -6.3 -2.4 1.9 1.4
July -5.9 -2.3 2.3 0.8
August -5.5 -1.7 2.8 0.1
September -4.4 -0.6 2.9 -0.6
October -3.7 -0.4 3.0 -1.3
November -3.3 0.0 2.6 -2.0
December -3.3 0.2 2.7  

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Includes network, low-cost, regional and other carriers.

** Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

 

Table 3: Scheduled Passenger Airline Full-time Equivalent Employees* by Month

Month 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Percent Change
2008-2012 2011-2012
January 418,702 390,566 379,388 380,949 388,778 -7.1 2.1
February 419,014 391,596 378,020 381,831 389,901 -6.9 2.1
March 415,516 392,077 377,261 382,796 390,761 -6.0 2.1
April 415,391 392,104 376,204 383,411 390,243 -6.1 1.8
May 415,484 387,431 376,957 384,974 390,957 -5.9 1.6
June 414,406 387,665 378,297 385,383 390,923 -5.7 1.4
July 411,085 386,770 378,060 386,843 390,032 -5.1 0.8
August 406,716 384,304 377,835 388,523 388,992 -4.4 0.1
September 397,295 379,924 377,676 388,641 386,372 -2.7 -0.6
October 394,166 379,713 378,112 389,444 384,310 -2.5 -1.3
November 392,095 379,358 379,335 389,361 381,639 -2.7 -2.0
December 391,806 378,953 379,651 389,728      
12-Month Average 407,640 385,872 378,066 385,967      
Jan-Nov Average 409,079 386,501 377,922 385,651 388,446 -5.0 0.7

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Includes network, low-cost, regional and other carriers.

** Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

 

Table 4: Airline Group Full-time Equivalent Employees*, November 2008-2012

  Network Low-Cost Regional All Passenger Airlines**
2008 265,227 62,699 57,464 392,095
2009 258,132 62,635 53,176 379,358
2010 256,432 64,657 52,656 379,335
2011 263,129 68,450 52,954 389,361
2012 256,836 69,441 50,100 381,639
Pct. Change 2008-2012 -3.2% 10.8% -12.8% -2.7%
Percent of Total Passenger Airline Employees in 2012 67.3% 18.2% 13.1%  

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

** Includes network, low-cost, regional and other carriers.


Table 5: Year-to-Year Change in Airline Group Full-time Equivalent Employees*, November 2008-2012

Percent change in FTEs from the same month of the previous year

  Network Low-Cost Regional All Passenger Airlines**
2008 -6.2 -2.8 -6.0 -6.5
2009 -2.7 -0.1 -7.5 -3.2
2010 -0.7 3.2 -1.0 0.0
2011 2.6 5.9 0.6 2.6
2012 -2.4 1.4 -5.4 -2.0

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

** Includes network, low-cost, regional and other carriers.


Table 6: Top 10 Airlines, November 2012

Ranked by Number of Full-Time Equivalent Employees*

Rank Airline Total FTE Employees Carrier Group** Top 10 Airlines November 2011
1 United 82,381 Network Delta
2 Delta 73,408 Network American
3 American 61,457 Network United
4 Southwest 45,953 Low-Cost Southwest
5 US Airways 30,383 Network Continental
6 JetBlue 12,465 Low-Cost US Airways
7 American Eagle 10,616 Regional JetBlue
8 SkyWest 9,283 Regional American Eagle
9 Alaska 9,208 Network SkyWest
10 ExpressJet 8,824 Regional Alaska

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

** See Table 9 for Network, Table 12 for Low-Cost and Table 15 for Regional


Table 7: Network Airlines - Year-to-Year Change in Full-time Equivalent Employees* from the Previous Year**

Percent change compared to same month the previous year

  2009 2010 2011 2012
January -6.3 -2.3 0.3 1.5
February -6.4 -3.0 1.1 1.2
March -6.7 -3.1 1.5 1.2
April -6.5 -3.6 1.8 1.3
May -8.2 -1.9 2.1 1.3
June -7.8 -1.6 1.6 1.4
July -7.1 -1.6 2.1 0.8
August -6.4 -0.9 2.7 -0.2
September -5.0 0.3 2.7 -0.8
October -2.8 -1.2 2.7 -1.4
November -2.7 -0.7 2.6 -2.4
December -2.5 -0.5 2.3  

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.


Table 8: Network Airlines Full-time Equivalent Employees* by Month 2008-2012

Month 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Percent Change
2008-2012 2011-2012
January 281,701 263,934 257,787 258,653 262,561 -6.8 1.5
February 282,627 264,561 256,756 259,545 262,788 -7.0 1.2
March 283,917 264,811 256,504 260,454 263,464 -7.2 1.2
April 283,684 265,199 255,697 260,347 263,666 -7.1 1.3
May 283,628 260,485 255,518 260,832 264,183 -6.9 1.3
June 282,799 260,808 256,576 260,689 264,301 -6.5 1.4
July 280,357 260,459 256,373 261,818 263,793 -5.9 0.8
August 276,118 258,569 256,122 263,063 262,426 -5.0 -0.2
September 268,416 254,866 255,751 262,639 260,649 -2.9 -0.8
October 266,608 259,031 255,890 262,912 259,245 -2.8 -1.4
November 265,227 258,132 256,432 263,129 256,836 -3.2 -2.4
December 264,744 258,148 256,834 262,617      
12-Month Average 276,652 260,750 256,353 261,385      
Jan-Nov Average 277,735 260,987 256,310 261,280 262,174 -5.6 0.3

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.


Table 9: By Network Airline: Full-time Equivalent Employees*, November 2008-2012

(FTEs for November of each year. Ranked by November 2012 FTEs)

Rank Airline 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Percent Change
2008-2012 2011-2012
1 UA/CO Combined 81,305 77,049 76,080 80,997 82,381 1.3 1.7
  United*** 46,792 43,892 43,609 43,761 82,381 N/A N/A
  Continental*** 34,513 33,157 32,471 37,236 N/A N/A N/A
2 DL/NW Combined 72,996 75,364 76,401 76,180 73,408 0.6 -3.6
  Delta** 45,168 48,993 76,401 76,180 73,408 N/A -3.6
  Northwest** 27,828 26,371 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
3 American 70,138 66,513 65,361 66,357 61,457 -12.4 -7.4
4 US Airways 31,162 29,936 29,615 30,651 30,383 -2.5 -0.9
5 Alaska 9,628 9,272 8,976 8,944 9,208 -4.4 3.0
  Total 265,227 258,132 256,432 263,129 256,836 -3.2 -2.4

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

** Delta Air Lines and Northwest Airlines merged and began reporting combined numbers in January 2010.

*** United Airlines and Continental Airlines merged and began reporting combined numbers in January 2012.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.


Table 10: Low-Cost Airlines - Year-to-Year Change in Full-time Equivalent Employees* from the Previous Year

Percent change compared to same month the previous year

Month 2009 2010 2011 2012
January -3.1 1.4 2.2 5.7
February -3.0 1.4 2.3 6.4
March 0.1 1.2 2.3 7.1
April 1.2 0.5 4.0 5.7
May 1.2 0.6 4.1 5.3
June 0.8 0.9 5.0 4.0
July 0.9 1.5 5.3 3.5
August -0.2 2.0 5.7 2.5
September -0.1 2.7 5.9 2.5
October -0.4 3.0 6.2 1.9
November -0.1 3.2 5.9 1.4
December 0.0 3.3 6.6  

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.


Table 11: Low-Cost Airlines Full-time Equivalent Employees* by Month

  2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Percent Change
2008-2012 2011-2012
January 64,736 62,699 63,600 64,978 68,684 6.1 5.7
February 64,935 62,958 63,845 65,321 69,473 7.0 6.4
March** 62,937 63,027 63,783 65,273 69,886 11.0 7.1
April*** 62,537 63,275 63,571 66,114 69,861 11.4 5.7
May 62,800 63,532 63,933 66,553 70,053 11.5 5.3
June 62,976 63,501 64,046 67,261 69,969 11.1 4.0
July 62,474 63,025 63,981 67,373 69,755 11.7 3.5
August 62,870 62,775 64,022 67,682 69,379 10.4 2.5
September 62,486 62,400 64,113 67,875 69,573 11.3 2.5
October 62,668 62,406 64,297 68,267 69,551 11.0 1.9
November 62,699 62,635 64,657 68,450 69,441 10.8 1.4
December 62,631 62,615 64,652 68,887      
12-Month Average 63,062 62,904 64,042 67,003      
Jan-Nov Average 63,102 62,930 63,986 66,832 69,602 10.3 4.1

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

Note: Percent changes and averages based on numbers prior to rounding.

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

** ATA Airlines ceased operations on April 3, 2008 and stopped reporting employment data effective in March.

***SkyBus stopped reporting employment data effective in April 2008 resulting from its bankruptcy filing.


Table 12: By Low-Cost Airline: Full-time Equivalent Employees*, November 2008-2012
(FTEs for November of each year. Ranked by November 2012 FTEs)

Rank   2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Percent Change
2008-2012 2011-2012
1 WN/FL Combined 42,999 42,566 42,879 45,605 45,953 6.9 0.8
  Southwest** 35,668 34,760 35,005 37,592 45,953 N/A N/A
  AirTran 7,331 7,806 7,874 8,013 N/A N/A N/A
2 JetBlue 10,397 10,846 11,285 12,103 12,465 19.9 3.0
3 Frontier 4,442 4,352 4,972 4,658 3,950 -11.1 -15.2
4 Spirit 2,266 1,906 2,143 2,432 2,888 27.4 18.8
5 Virgin America 1,261 1,424 1,766 2,091 2,407 90.9 15.1
6 Allegiant 1,336 1,542 1,614 1,562 1,779 33.2 13.9
  Total 62,699 62,635 64,657 68,450 69,441 10.8 1.4

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

** Southwest Airlines and AirTran Airways merged and began reporting combined numbers in April 2012.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.


Table 13: Regional Airlines - Year-to-Year Change in Full-time Equivalent Employees* from the Previous Year
Percent change compared to same month the previous year

Month 2009 2010 2011 2012
January -6.0 -8.5 0.4 0.1
February -4.9 -9.8 0.9 0.8
March -4.9 -10.1 1.8 0.2
April -7.4 -9.3 2.1 -1.5
May -7.7 -8.0 1.6 -2.2
June -7.2 -7.7 1.5 -2.5
July -6.9 -7.5 1.9 -3.3
August -6.8 -7.2 2.1 -2.3
September -5.7 -6.6 2.0 -4.3
October -10.1 0.5 2.1 -6.0
November -7.5 -1.0 0.6 -5.4
December -8.9 -0.3 1.5  

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.


Table 14: Regional Airlines Full-time Equivalent Employees* by Month

  2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Percent Change
2008-2012 2011-2012
January 61,104 57,436 52,531 52,764 52,796 -13.6 0.1
February 60,547 57,581 51,952 52,409 52,831 -12.7 0.8
March 60,239 57,310 51,522 52,468 52,581 -12.7 0.2
April 61,333 56,778 51,502 52,596 51,811 -15.5 -1.5
May 61,358 56,626 52,074 52,930 51,746 -15.7 -2.2
June 60,967 56,563 52,210 52,984 51,664 -15.3 -2.5
July 60,694 56,477 52,229 53,197 51,463 -15.2 -3.3
August 60,346 56,236 52,179 53,284 52,079 -13.7 -2.3
September 59,412 56,009 52,322 53,361 51,082 -14.0 -4.3
October 57,992 52,143 52,402 53,490 50,305 -13.3 -6.0
November 57,464 53,176 52,656 52,954 50,100 -12.8 -5.4
December 57,884 52,730 52,549 53,328      
12-Month Average 59,945 55,755 52,177 52,980      
Jan-Nov Average 60,132 56,030 52,144 52,949 51,678 -14.1 -2.4

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.


Table 15: By Regional Airline: Full-time Equivalent Employees*, November 2008-2012
(FTEs for November of each year. Ranked by November 2012 FTEs)

Rank   2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Percent Change
2008-2012 2011-2012
1 American Eagle 9,289 9,042 9,456 10,162 10,616 14.3 4.5
2 SkyWest 8,967 8,655 9,063 9,468 9,283 3.5 -2.0
3 XE/EV Combined 9,627 8,914 9,171 9,293 8,824 -8.3 -5.0
  ExpressJet# 5,347 5,326 5,434 5,441 8,824 N/A N/A
  Atlantic Southeast# 4,280 3,588 3,737 3,852 N/A N/A N/A
4 9E/XJ Combined 7,187 5,629 5,619 5,637 4,750 -33.9 -15.7
  Pinnacle** 3,607 3,331 3,447 3,745 4,750 N/A N/A
  Mesaba** 3,580 2,298 2,172 1,892 N/A N/A N/A
5 Horizon 3,456 3,210 2,920 2,845 2,703 -21.8 -5.0
6 Air Wisconsin 2,702 2,506 2,520 2,580 2,565 -5.1 -0.6
7 Republic*** 1,423 2,865 2,104 1,972 2,115 48.6 7.3
8 Shuttle America 1,196 1,257 1,298 1,575 1,857 55.3 17.9
9 Mesa 2,936 2,599 2,064 1,835 1,575 -46.4 -14.2
10 Chautauqua**** N/A N/A N/A N/A 1,307 N/A N/A
11 Executive 1,622 1,791 1,775 1,802 1,267 -21.9 -29.7
12 Compass 767 884 950 1,022 1,099 43.3 7.5
13 PSA 995 967 998 1,039 1,090 9.5 4.9
14 GoJet 390 560 567 661 1,051 169.5 59.0
15 Colgan## 1,300 1,257 1,391 1,101 1 N/A N/A
16 Comair### 5,253 2,642 2,643 1,965 N/A N/A N/A
17 Lynx#### 359 403 122 N/A N/A N/A N/A
  Total 57,464 53,176 52,656 52,954 50,100 -12.8 -5.4

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

** Pinnacle Airlines and Mesaba Airlines began reporting combined numbers in January 2012.

*** Effective with November 2009 reporting, Republic Airlines' employment numbers include FTE's from Midwest Airlines. Midwest employment data were formerly included in the "Other Airlines" category.

**** Effective July 2012 Chautauqua Airlines began reporting employment data.

# ExpressJet Airlines and Atlantic Southeast Airlines began reporting combined numbers in January 2012.

## Effective the end of September 2012, Colgan Airlines ceased operations.

### Effective the end of October 2012, Comair ceased operations.

#### Effective the end of March 2011, Lynx Airlines ceased operations.

N/A: Carriers did not meet the standard for filing, was no longer operating, merged with another operating carrier or failed to file. See previous notes.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

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